We are conducting Program Tours at numerous surgical residency programs around the country to learn about various strategies that programs employ to enhance and improve their learning environments and residents’ well-being. Program tours are an opportunity for programs to showcase their wellness initiatives. The lessons we learn will be used to build a Wellness Toolkit of potential ready-to-implement interventions.
To protect the confidentiality of participating residents, faculty, and staff, all information collected during the Program Tours will be confidential. There will be no feedback to participating programs. Any information collected from individuals will be removed during data analysis and reporting. will be kept confidential. No identifiable information (name, etc.) will be collected from individuals participating in the program tours.
Summarized Program Tour Information
Duration: Each program tour will last approximately 2 days. Coordination will be performed by SOQIC. We want to learn from what you do everyday, so there is no need to alter your daily routine.
What is a Program Tour?
A team of SECOND Trial researchers will visit a variety of programs to learn about their learning environments and different approaches to resident wellness. Over the course of 2 days, our team will observe educational conferences and resident work processes and perform interviews/focus groups.
How does my program benefit from a Program Tour
The Program Tour is a way for us to highlight the work you’ve done improving the learning environment and resident wellness in the national surgical education sphere. We think Program Tours should therefore be a source of pride among your residents and faculty; we hope programs view the Tour as a showcase and a celebration. To that end, we will host a social event for your residency during our Tour.
Resident wellness initiatives, resources, and/or programs identified during Program Tours may be included as content in the SECOND Trial’s Wellness Toolkit. All content included in the Toolkit will be credited to the source program. By including your work in the Wellness Toolkit, we all will be able to influence the lives of surgical residents throughout the country.
How many programs are being toured?
We will tour programs until we reach the thematic saturation, i.e., when we begin to encounter redundant ideas or interventions. Currently, we are preparing to visit 20-30 programs, but we may increase that target depending on what we find.
How are programs being chosen for tours?
We are utilizing a variety of sampling techniques: 1) We will aggregate data from the ABSITE at the program-level and use it to identify programs that represent a range of performance on various metrics of the learning environment and resident well-being. Of note, the data from the ABSITE survey are de-identified at the individual resident and the program-level. 2) We have asked several national experts in physician wellness to identify exemplary programs. 3) We surveyed program directors to identify programs with innovative or unusually comprehensive wellness initiatives. Members of the Program Tour team will not know why any particular program has been chosen for a Tour.
Who is on the Program Tour team?
Each team will have 4-6 members. Yue-Yung Hu, one of the co-PIs, is a pediatric surgeon and an associate program director of the general surgery program at Northwestern. She will be present on every Program Tour and will provide surgical perspective. The other team members will each visit a subset of programs on a rotating basis. Team members may include PhD-level qualitative researchers with expertise in conducting hospital visits to assess implementation of quality improvement initiatives, psychiatrist who study healthcare professional wellness, PhD psychologists who study healthcare professional wellness, study coordinators (Masters-level health services researchers), and research residents (surgical residents who have committed to 2 years of research).
What will the Program Tour team look for?
Because all program tour personnel will be blinded to the programs’ data, all tours will be conducted similarly. We will observe educational conferences such as Morbidity & Mortality, as well as residents working in their typical environments (e.g., clinical workspaces, resident lounge). We will interview a sample of residents and faculty, as well as departmental and institutional education leadership (e.g., program director, chair, DIO). Questions ask broadly about the work environment and wellness. For example, “How has your residency experience been thus far? Tell us about how your program promotes wellness. What initiatives has your program implemented? Did you take part? What were the barriers? What do you think works or doesn’t work and why?”
What is the time commitment for each program?
We hope to conduct the tours in a minimally disruptive way. We want to understand your program in its natural state. We will plan our visit around your existing conferences and workflow. A sample agenda is available. The time commitment for any single resident will be less than 2 hours. We do not intend to interview all residents; we will interview a convenience sample of 3-5 residents/PGY class.
Won’t programs know they are bad if they are being visited and change/hide their behaviors?
There are no “bad” programs. In fact, our existing data shows that there is no correlation between different exposures; different programs are strong and weak at different things.
Our goal is learn about resident wellness. This requires us to visit a range of programs, especially those that are exemplary. This is not a Joint Commission or an ACGME visit. We are not trying to uncover bad behavior. We seek to understand how we can all do better together and identify lessons that may be shared across the surgical education community.
How do observations help you build a Toolkit of interventions? Why not just correlate Program Director Survey data on existing wellness initiatives with ABSITE Survey data on resident wellness?
Broadly, we are interested in how policies/procedures/initiatives translate into culture, and how this culture manifests in wellness. Observations are key to helping understand complex environments. Our experience with quality improvement tells us that the mere existence of initiatives is not enough to effect change. There are nuances to implementation that may make all the difference in outcomes, and this is what we seek to understand through observations/interviews. For example, we may find that the same initiative was implemented at two different programs, but that one was more successful based upon local context.
Additionally, observations are a way to triangulate the data that we collect from surveys and/or interviews. As in other qualitative research, we learn a lot by observing how people interact with one another – and these interactions may be shaped by policies, training, or infrastructure that is exportable to other programs. Aspects of local culture/environment may not be readily apparent to those who are embedded in it; hence, these important factors may be missed if we only conduct interviews, focus groups, and surveys. For example, we may find that there is something about the learning environment that is a major contributor to wellness and that goes largely unrecognized (i.e., by program directors filling out surveys, in the existing wellness literature). All SECOND Trial observational data will be collected and analyzed by experts in observational/qualitative research.
Will our program get feedback after our Program Tour?
To protect the confidentiality of the people who participate in the focus groups and interview, we will not be providing feedback to programs after the Tours. However, if a resident reports physical abuse, discrimination, sexual harassment, or suicidal ideation, we will report these issues to the appropriate institutional representative. Residents will be made aware of this potential confidentiality breach in the verbal consent process. This protocol is based upon feedback from our Bioethics Panel.
That said, we envision the Wellness Toolkit as an electronically available living document, to which programs will add their tips/tricks/experiences as they begin implementing the interventions that you contributed. In this way, the SECOND Trial will weave together the best pieces from all programs to maximize our collective impact on resident well-being.